Now, it is unclear about the causes of cancer, so the research for cancer is remain hot. In the meanwhile, the hypothesis for the carcinogenesis is so many that been understood well. So, the research about the cancer is also hot. More and more cancer researchers are committed to this. In the present, we explain and introduce detailed for the cancer stem cell hypothesis.

  • Firstly, what is the cancer stem cell?
  • Secondly, how cancer stem cell functions in the carcinogenesis?
  • Thirdly, what is the significance of cancer stem cell for the treatment of cancers?
  • Lastly, how can I look for cancer stem cells?

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What is Furuncle? How it Occurred?

by Yang Wenting on August 20, 2011

Furuncle refers to the acute purulent infection of signal hair follicle and the surrounding tissues. Generally, the germ is Staphylococcus aurous, sometime is Staphylococcus epidermidis and others. The often happened on the neck, craniofacial back and so on because of the unclean skin, scratch or poor resistance.

What are the symptoms of furuncle?

At first, a small scleroma with red, Swollen and pain appears. Several days later, the center of the scleroma necrosis, soften and the pain range expand with yellow- white thick bolt. Later, the thick bolt off and ulcerate. It occurred after the pus completely flows.

Importantly, the furuncle happened on the face, especially on the surrounding of nose and up-slip, called as dangerous triangle is often serous. If it exacerbated or racked, the bacterial will go into the intracranial venous, which makes the infection of cerebral. It may performs some serous symptoms of face progressive swelling, chills, fever, headache, vomit and shock, even dead.

The furuncle often can be prevented.

For example:

  • Keep the skin clean, especially the good site
  • Keep the skin dry in summer and hot environment
  • Bathe and change underwear in time
  • For baby, protect the skin to avoid injury
  • If the furuncle happened, you should visit you doctor

 

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Hereditary colorectal cancer refers to a colorectal cancer that is resulted by some genetic factors and others. It is familial and genetic. The high-risk groups and genetic risk can be found by the test of gene mutation. Notably, if the gene mutation is determined, the preventive treatment can be used to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer.

What kinds of people are the high-risk groups of colorectal cancer?

One, who has one of the following factors, is the high-risk groups, especially for the more than 40 years old.

  1. Fecal occult blood test was positive
  2. Family history of colorectal cancer patients
  3. The history of cancer and intestinal polyps
  4. Have two or more of the following:
    • Chronic constipation
    • Chronic diarrhea
    • Viscous bloody stool
    • History of adverse life events
    • Chronic appendicitis

The clinical significance of colorectal cancer relative gene as following:

hMLH1、hMSH2

Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is a common hereditary cancer syndrome. hMLH1 and hMSh2are the major susceptibility gene. For patient with these genes mutation, the cumulative lifetime risk of colorectal cancer is up to 80%.

APC

The susceptibility gene of familial adenomatous intestinal polyposis (FAP) is APC. FAP patients often occur on 10-12 years old. The colorectal polyps can be found throughout and have high degree of malignancy. The colorectal cancer can occur until to the age of 45 with 100%.

Early screening high-risk individuals in the family is helpful to the periodic medical tests (colorectal examination, gynecological examination, and endoscopy) and surgery as soon as possible.

Relative post:

What Can I Do to Prevent from Getting Bowel Cancer?

National Bowel Cancer Screening Program

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After breast cancer surgery, it is the most effective to perform exercise for the clients with lymphedema under the guidance.

In addition, experts also proposed 18 recommendations to prevent upper extremity edema after breast cancer surgery:

  1. Does not neglect the mild edema of upper arm or chest, if any, tell doctors in time.
  2. Blood and injections are forbidden on the limb
  3. Avoid blood pressure on the limb, if the upper limb lymphedema; blood pressure should be done on the lower limb
  4. Maintain the skin clean and dry, especially the skin folds and fingers space of the limb and rub lotion after bath
  5. Avoid resistance to repetitive motion, such as scrubbing or push-pull
  6. Not to mention heavy objects (5kg) and take bag with the contra lateral
  7. Do not wear tight elastic necklace and bracelet
  8. Avoid overheating during shower or wash the dishes and avoid the sauna or hot bath
  9. Avoid limb injuries, such as cuts, burns, sports injuries, insect bites, scratches, etc. and avoid nails any injury;
  10. Maintain ideal body weight, into low-salt, high protein, digestible diet and no smoking and drinking
  11. Doing housework or gardening with gloves
  12. Avoid fatigue on the limb. Please rest and raise the limb when the limb pain
  13. Do some exercises such as walking, swimming, aerobics, biking, aerobics or yoga
  14. Lymphedema patients wear elastic in the air; flight elastic bandage and with more fluid plus long-distance
  15. Wear Light fake milk or the right, no steel bra
  16. Remove armpit hair with electric shaver
  17. The lymphedema patients should wear elastic sleeve during the day; please check every 4 to 6 months
  18. Any symptoms of infection, such as rash, itching, redness, pain, increased skin temperature or fever should be promptly reported to your doctor.

Guidelines:

Exercise  Guidelines  for Clients  with  Lymphedema

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Possible Complications of Breast Cancer Surgery

June 5, 2011

At present, the surgical methods of breast cancer is the standard radical mastectomy and modified radical mastectomy, there are some possible complications after breast cancer surgery. The patients is poor health, if complications happened, it will undoubtedly increase the pain, prolonged the time of hospital and spend more costs. Therefore, the patients should understand the […]

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The General Guidelines for Cell Culture

June 4, 2011

Before a cell line is put into culture, several factors should be considered Are the cells coming from established, well-defined lines? Is the species known? Are the nutrient and CO2 requirements known? Are the growth patterns known? Has mycoplasma testing been done? Will the cells be cultured in plates, flasks, bioreactors, etc? What volume/number of cells […]

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What are The Surgical Indications and Contraindications for Breast Cancer

May 28, 2011

Surgery is still one of the main treatments for breast cancer. The trend of surgery for breast cancer is to minimize the surgical damage and try to keep the appearance for patients for the early breast cancer.A variety of surgical indications and contraindications for breast cancer were introduced as followed: Indications for surgery 1.Radical mastectomy […]

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What is Biotechnology?

May 25, 2011

Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. Biotechnology is any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives there of, to make or modify products or processes for specific use. One section of biotechnology is the directed use of organisms for the manufacture of organic […]

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What Type of Breast Cancer Do I Have?

May 13, 2011

There are many types of breast cancer, and they may have vastly different implications. It is categorized by whether it begins in the ducts or lobules, the organs responsible for breast milk production. It may help you work well with your physicians to get treatment to understand the specific type. First, there is information about […]

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Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer

May 12, 2011

Chemotherapy is a cytotoxic drug that is used to destroy breast cancer cells. It is known as a systemic treatment because the whole body is exposed to the drugs. How chemotherapy works Cancer cells grow by dividing in an uncontrolled way. Chemotherapy aims to interfere with their ability to divide and grow. Different chemotherapy drugs […]

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What Kinds of Tests or Examinations Should be Done for Breast Cancer?

April 30, 2011

1. X-ray exam X-ray examination is a common method for breast cancer. Breast cancer commonly can be divided into lumps or nodules, calcification and thickening of the skin symptoms group in the x-ray films. Mass with higher density, edge burr is diagnosed. Burr longer than the diameter of mass is called star lesions.  2. Ultrasound […]

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Surgical Treatment of Breast Cancer

April 27, 2011

Surgery is still one of the main treatments for breast cancer. The choice of surgical methods is depended on the severity of breast cancer, but the main the general trend is to minimize the surgical damage and try to keep the breast under conditions in the permit. No matter what kind of surgical procedures used, […]

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What are the Symptoms of Breast Cancer?

April 19, 2011

Breast cancer begins from a cell that divides uncontrolled. A small clump is too tiny to be felt. So, breast cancer can be asymptomatic in the early stage, and it may show local and systemic symptoms with the progression of this disease. They may include: 1、Lump: The classic symptom for breast cancer is a lump […]

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About Breast Cancer

April 8, 2011

In the western countries, the risk of developing breast cancer is 1 in 13 in a woman’s life. Actually, the mortality is only I in 43 dying from breast cancer due to the early screening and advanced treatment. What causes breast cancer? The development of breast cancer is the same to other cancers that cells […]

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What Can I Do to Prevent from Getting Bowel Cancer?

April 4, 2011

Australia is one of the highest rates of bowel cancer in the world, with 12,000 new cases every year. It is almost 40% of those people will die from it. This is equivalent to one death every two hours(bowelcanceraustralia). Though bowel caner is a killer, if diagnosed and treated early, it is one of the most […]

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What are the Symptoms of Abortion?

April 1, 2011

Menstruation changes Vaginal bleeding When abortion happened within 3 months of pregnancy, the villi and decidua separated and sinus opened, so, the vaginal bleeding often occur in early abortion and the amount of bleeding is more. For the late abortion, the placenta has formed, and miscarriage is similar to the premature birth process, that the […]

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What are the Types of Abortion?

March 31, 2011

According to the clinical development process, there are seven types of abortion: 1. Threatened abortion Clinical symptoms of miscarriage occurred, but pregnancy products still remained in Uterine, which commonly happened in the early pregnancy. The symptoms include that vaginal bleeds a litter with bright red, but if the product in the vagina longer, with brown […]

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What are the Symptoms of Abortion?

March 23, 2011

Menstruation Changes Vaginal bleeding When abortion happened within 3 months of pregnancy, the villi and decidua separated and sinus opened, so, the vaginal bleeding often occur in early abortion and the amount of bleeding is more. For the late abortion, the placenta has formed, and miscarriage is similar to the premature birth process, that the […]

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What are the Reasons of Spontaneous Abortion?

March 20, 2011

Genetic defects Spouse with chromosomal abnormalities can transmit to the fetus, and then cause abortion. There are about 50~60% fetus with chromosomal abnormalities will undergo spontaneous abortion. The chromosomal abnormalities can include: Aneuploidy: Aneuploidy refers to an abnormal number of chromosomes, and is a type of chromosome abnormality, such as three-body, x single and Triploid. […]

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KLF4 and Wnt Singal Pathway

March 18, 2011

In colon epithelium, the expression level of KLF4 is duodenum>jejunum>ileum,that is consistent with differentiation and proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells. Meanwhile, KLF4 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) showed a reciprocal pattern of expression. Wnt signaling plays an important role in homeostasis and transformation of the intestinal mucosa through its regulation of both proliferation and […]

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